Gegap Gempita Menyambut UN 2017

Opini
Oleh: Tubagus Saputra, S.Pd
Pegiat Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan dan Alumni PKn UPI Bandung
Pora-pora ujian nasional dalam Pendidikan nasional sudah di depan mata, seyogya mari kita sambut dengan gembira. Ujian nasional merupakan momentum evaluasi atas kinerja satu tahun penyelenggaraan pendidikan di tanah air. Setiap momentum evaluasi tak perlu di sambut dengan rasa resah dan gelisah, tetapi sambutlah hal ini dengan suka cita sebab akan segera mengetahui daripada prestasi hasil yang telah dilaksakan oleh segenap warga negara Indonesia yang memegang mandat dan berkecimpung dalam dunia Pendidikan di Tanah Air.
Menurut Sudjana (2017), evaluasi dalam kegiatan pembelajaran memiliki definisi suatu proses untuk memberikan nilai kepada suatu obyek dengan memakai kriteria tertentu. Dengan kata lain, penilaian tersebut tidak dilakukan tanpa dasar melainkan harus di buat suatu parameter yang jelas dan kontras sehingga hasil yang didapatkan bersifat valid. Peserta didik juga wajib mengetahui ukuran apa yang digunakan oleh tenaga pendidik dalam menentukan nilainnya. Berkenaan dengan ini maka, penentuan parameter juga harus mempertimbangkan kemampuan siswa dan ketersediaan fasilitas penunjang pembelajaran yang berbeda-beda. Suatu masalah akan muncul dalam kasus ini jika standar yang sama  berlaku untuk semua sekolah. Contohnya dalam ujian nasional.
Standar kelulusan ujian nasional (UN) dibuat sama sementara pemerintah belum memperhatikan pemerataan guru, kompetensi siswa, dan sarana prasarana  pendukung. Di tahun 2017 ini pelaksanaan ujian nasional (UN) sebagai mana di kutip dari laman kompas.com (http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2017/03/30/22322471/mendikbud.minta.hacker.tak.ganggu.pelaksanaan.un.berbasis.komputer  30/03/2017 : 23:54 WIB) bahwa
UN untuk SMK diselenggarakan pada 3 hingga 6 April. Kemudian UN SMA/MA diselenggarakan pada 10 hingga 13 April. Sedangkan untuk UN SMP diselenggarakan dua gelombang yakni 2,3,4 dan 15 Mei dan gelombang kedua pada 8,9,10 dan 16 Mei.
Ada hal yang menarik dari penyelenggaraan UN di tahun ini, yakni penggunaan komputer sebagai media pengerjaan ujian. Pada tahun-tahun sebelumnya biasa penyelenggaraan UN memakai lembar soal dan jawaban dari kertas sehingga membutuhkan pensil 2B untuk melingkari jawaban yang di anggap benar dan penghapus untuk menghapus jawaban yang di anggap salah. Hal ini dapat diasumsikan sebagai suatu terobosan dalam dunia pendidikan di tanah air, khususnya berkenaan dengan evaluasi penyelenggaraan pembelajaran Pendidikan Nasional. Akan tetapi yang perlu diperhatikan dan dicermati bersama adalah menyoal ketersedian sarana dan prasarana penunjang berupa ketersedian komputer yang ada pada setiap sekolah di seluruh sekolah di tanah air ini. Sebagaimana telah disebutkan di atas bahwa penentuan parameter dalam evaluasi pembelajaran juga mesti mempertimbangkan ketersedian fasilitas penunjang agar tidak terjadi kejomplangan yang mungkin berujung pada pelanggaran hak dan kewajiban peserta didik dalam pelaksanaan UN nantinya.
Belum lagi adanya kekhawatiran bahwa UN yang akan diselenggarakan sebentar lagi, akan terganggu oleh adanya gangguan-gangguan seperti adanya “Hacker” yang akan meretas situs pada saat penyelenggaran UN berbasik komputer dilaksanakan. Apalagi fasilitas penunjang pelaksanaan UN ini masih sangat sederhana sehingga resisten untuk terjadi peretasan-peratasan oleh para “Hacker”. Oleh karena itu, penyelenggaraan UN di tahun layak kiranya untuk dilakukan peninjauan kembali atau evaluasi pasca pelaksanaannya guna melihat signifikansi daripada output yang dihasilkan.
Tujuan evaluasi pembelajaran menurut Depdiknas (2016) yakni (1) melihat produktivitas dan efektivitas kegiatan belajar mengajar, (2) memperbaiki dan menyempurnakan kegiatan guru, (3) memperbaiki, menyempurnakan dan mengembangkan program belajar mengajar, (4) mengetahui kesulitan-kesulitan apa yang dihadapi oleh siswa selama kegiatan belajar dan mencari jalan keluarnya, (5) menempatkan siswa dalam situasi belajar mengajar yang tepat sesuai dengan kemampuannya. Dengan demikian, dapat ditarik suatu simpulan sementara bahwa penyelenggaraan UN di tiap tahunnya oleh penyelenggara kuasa pendidikan di negara ini adalah bertujuan untuk mengejawantahkan hal-hal sebagaimana di maksud tersebut. Oleh karena itu, upaya mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa juga harus tetap berada pada rel evaluasi baik dari maksud, tujuan, dan fungsi penyelenggaraannya. Tidak bisa asal-asalan, tidak sekedar unjuk gaya-gayaan. Seperti kalimat dari Lenang Manggala (2017) bahwa “Tentang menciptakan perubahan untuk Indonesia, Saya percaya, bahwa Indonesia adalah kapal yang sangat besar. Untuk membelokkan kapal yang besar, kita butuh kebersamaan untuk mencipta tenaga yang besar, dalam waktu yang tidak sebentar. Memang tidak mudah. Namun, bukan berarti tidak usah.” 
Pendidikan di Indonesia terus mencari bentuknya yang sempurna, boleh mengkritisi tapi jangan lupa untuk meninggalkan suatu solusi dari sikap kritis tersebut. Semoga Allah SWT senantiasa merahmati dunia Pendidikan di Indonesia.
Referensi :
____(2017).Pengertian Evaluasi Pembelajaran Menurut Para ahli. {Online} Tersedia: http://www.duniapelajar.com/2014/07/20/pengertian-evaluasi-pembelajaran-menurut-para-ahli/(31/03/2017 : 00:43 WIB)
_____(2017).Quotes about Pendidikan. [Online]. Tersedia: http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/pendidikan(31/03.2017: 00:44 WIB)
Kompas. (2017).mendikbud minta hacker tak ganggu pelaksanaan un berbasis komputer. [Online]. Tersedia : http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2017/03/30/22322471/mendikbud.minta.hacker.tak.ganggu.pelaksanaan.un.berbasis.komputer(31/03/2017 : 00:41 WIB)
Kurniawan, A. (2016).Tujuan dan Fungsi Pembelajaran. [Online]. Tersedia: http://ariskurniawan038.blogspot.co.id/2016/02/tujuan-dan-fungsi-pembelajaran.html(31/03/2017 : 00:43 WIB)

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