Kepemimpinan Mubah

Kolom

Oleh :  Karim Suryadi
Dosen Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, peneliti komunikasi politik dan Dewan Penasehat IKA PKn UPI

Sumber : Pikiran Rakyat
JANJI dan politik ibarat sepasang sepatu. Bagi kebanyakan pemimpin politik, janji adalah taji. Doktrin Napoleon “A leader is a dealer in hope”, yang sejatinya menegaskan pentingnya retorika yang menginspirasi guna membangkitkan harapan pengikutnya, sering ditafsirkan seolah-olah sebagai ayat suci bagi pemimpin politik untuk menebar janji. Padahal, tidak semua janji menginspirasi.
Saking seringnya berjanji, pemimpin politik disindir lewat janjinya yang aneh. Ketika menggambarkan sosok pemimpin politik, Nikita Khrushcev berkata “Politicians are the same all over. They promise to build a bridge even where is no river”.
Janji membangun jembatan meski di sana tidak ada sungai seperti yang dilukiskan Nikita senada dengan janji seorang pejabat politik untuk fokus pada tugas yang diemban, bahkan bersumpah untuk tidak “ngompreng” pada profesi lain, namun diam-diam menandatangani kontrak baru. Pemimpin yang lain berjanji untuk mengutamakan kepentingan masyarakat, bahkan bersumpah untuk mengesampingkan segala hal yang patut diduga dapat memengaruhi keputusannya, malah menjadikan jabatannya sebagai batu loncatan.
Kecewa seakan menjadi buah yang harus dipetik bagi mereka yang menanam kepercayaan kepada pemimpin politik. Namun bila kita tidak percaya kepada pemimpin politik, kepada siapa kepercayaan harus kita berikan, sebab suka atau tidak, sepersekian pemenuhan hak-hak sosial kita bergantung kepada komitmen mereka menempati janjinya?
Saking seringnya pemimpin politik di Brazil ingkar janji di sana hidup cerita rakyat iblis yang jujur. Kisahnya dituturkan Augusto Boal, seorang pemain drama yang dipaksa terjun ke dunia politik, dalam bukunya Legislative Theatre: Using performance to make politics, Routledge, 1998. Boal menggunakan cerita rakyat Brazil tersebut untuk menyindir wali kota Rio de Jeneiro yang dianggap sebagai orang yang tidak bisa dipercaya. Kepada legislatif berjanji satu hal, namun di belakang melakukan hal yang lain, sampai-sampai tidak berguna berdialog dengannya.
Menurut cerita rakyat Brazil, sang iblis gemar membuat janji yang menguntungkan dirinya. Pada suatu hari, ia membuat perjanjian dengan seorang petani. Iblis akan menyerahkan tanahnya kepada petani untuk diolah dan hasilnya harus dibagi dua: iblis meminta apa pun yang tumbuh di atas tanah, dan petani berhak mendapatkan apa pun yang ada di bawah tanah. Iblis membayangkan petani akan menanam pohon, sehingga ia akan mendapatkan semua yang dipanen. Namun, sang petani cerdik. Ia mengajukan syarat untuk memilih benih yang akan ditanam, dan iblis pun setuju. Petani pun memilih benih dan menanamnya. Namun, sang iblis terkejut karena petani memasukan benih kentang, sehingga petani mendapatkan semua yang ditanamnya, dan iblis tidak mendapatkan apa pun. Walaupun begitu, sang iblis menepati janjinya, dan membiarkan petani menikmati semua yang dipanennya.
Pada tangan seorang pemimpin politik kekuasaan berkumpul. Mereka memiliki sejumlah hak yang tidak dimiliki siapa pun. Karena itu, secara etis mereka harus siap dinilai tidak hanya berdasarkan moralitas umum, melainkan berdasarkan moralitas khusus yang melekat pada jabatan yang disandangnya.
Karena kemenonjolan perannya di tengah-tengah masyarakat, para pemimpin politik akan diuji bukan hanya lewat godaan umum sebagai manusia biasa, tetapi diuji lewat tawaran menggiurkan yang menguras keimanan terdalamnya. Itulah sebabnya, Gatotkaca bisa saja marah ketika digoda dan dijaili Cepot, namun ia takkan menggunakan Aji Narantaka, pemberian Resi Seta, dan Aji Brajamusti warisan pamannya Brajamusti, yang terletak di tangannya untuk menampar Cepot atau Dawala.
Hanya karena dituntut bertindak untuk dan atas nama masyarakat yang dipimpinnya seorang pemimpin politik memiliki sejumlah hak istimewa dan kedudukannya “dilebihkan” dari masyarakat yang dipimpinnya. Sebagai figur yang melambangkan karakter masyarakat yang dipimpinnya seorang pemimpin politik bukan hanya dituntut menunjukkan ciri-ciri yang identik dengan pengikutnya, tetapi juga mampu menampilkan moralitas dan kemampuan paling baik di tengah masyarakatnya. Itulah sebabnya, Jack Sparrow dipilih sebagai pemimpin bajak laut bukan karena ia menjadi anggota komplotan perompak, tetapi karena kemampuannya menunaikan tugas sebagai bajak laut dan ketangguhannya menaklukan komplotan musuhnya.
Kebijakan yang sudah diumumkan ke publik lalu dianulir memang bukan sebuah pengkhianatan, namun mencerminkan kekuranghati-hatian dan kecermatan. Meski tidak akan dicap sebagai pembohong, pemimpin politik seperti ini akan dipandang kurang asak jeujeuhan (terburu-buru dan tidak berpikir secara matang).
Seorang pemimpin politik tidak harus selalu setuju terhadap apa yang dituntut rakyatnya. Namun ketika ia berjanji untuk satu hal, seharusnya berkomitmen. Seorang pemimpin politik pun tidak harus berkata “ya” atas semua desakan masyarakatnya, namun ketika berkata “ya” adalah “ya”, dan ketika berkata “tidak” bukan berarti “mungkin”.
Seorang pemimpin yang baik bukan hanya mampu melaksanakan yang wajib dan sunat, serta menjauhi yang haram dan makruh, tapi mereka yang mengerjakan pekerjaan yang mubah (tidak diperintahkan, tidak pula dilarang) namun amat bermanfaat bagi pengikutnya. Inilah pemimpin inovatif.
Namun layak dipertanyakan itikad baiknya jika seorang pemimpin politik keukeuh menggarap pekerjaan yang mubah, namun mengaburkan perannya sebagai pejabat publik, dan semua manfaat yang ditimbulkannya hanya diperuntukkan bagi kepentingannya sendiri.***

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